Magnesium is a crucial mineral that plays a vital duty in muscular tissue as well as nerve feature. It is associated with over 300 chemical responses in the body. Yet, practically fifty percent of all Americans are magnesium lacking. That makes supplementing a clever action.
Not all magnesium supplements, however, are equivalent. To divide the most effective from the remainder, we have actually gone deep right into the marketplace to bring you the 7 ideal magnesium supps, divided by classification. This post will certainly likewise disclose the essential advantages of magnesium supplements as well as offer you with a thorough customer’s overview.
** There might be associate web links in this blog post where we may obtain a tiny compensation on acquisitions you make. We just advise items we believe you will certainly discover useful. **
7 Finest Magnesium Supplements
- Total Finest Magnesium Supplement: Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Rest: Clear Labs Rest Help
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Anxiousness: Nootropics Depot ClariMAG
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Females: Mother’s Happiness Calmness
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Irregular Bowel Movements: Life Expansion Magnesium Caps
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Fat Burning: Thorne Magnesium CitraMate
- Finest Magnesium Supplement For Maternity: Zhou Nourishment Mag Glycinate
1. Total Finest Magnesium Supplement: Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate
Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate offers 150 mg of magnesium citrate in pill kind per dosage. That offers you with 36% of the RDA for men. Citrate is just one of one of the most bioavailable types of magnesium.
This is a pure magnesium supplement without any various other active ingredients besides the pill’s components. Each of those active ingredients is vegan-friendly as well as gluten-free, non-GMO, as well as hypoallergenic. The pills are likewise little sufficient for simple ingesting. They are unappetizing, so they can be taken with food without hindering the taste.
Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate is offered in either a 90 or 180-capsule container. The tag suggests taking 1-4 pills daily. We advise taking 200-300 mg of magnesium daily, relating to 2 pills. That suggests a 90-day container would certainly last a month as well as a fifty percent.
Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate is third-party examined for strength as well as pureness.
- Magnesium citrate kind, which is very bioavailable
- Tiny unappetizing pills
- Vegan pleasant
- third celebration examined
- Solitary pill dosage is a little bit reduced
Our supplements are made with only costs active ingredients sourced from relied on providers as well as assisted by our dietary professionals, after that thoroughly produced as well as examined to confirm their strength …
2. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Rest: Clear Labs Rest Help
Clear Labs Rest Help is especially marketed for its capability to boost the top quality as well as amount of your rest. Each 3-capsule offering includes 200 mg of magnesium citrate, a very bioavailable kind of the substance. To even more advertise rest as well as get rid of sleeping disorders you likewise obtain the adhering to active ingredients:
- Vitamin B6 – 10 mg
- Zinc – 3 mg
- Glycine – 1000 mg
- Tart Cherry Powder – 500 mg
- L-Theanine – 200 mg
- Ruteacarpine – 125 mg
- Melatonin – 3 mg
This scientifically dosed mix of active ingredients is made to assist you loosen up as well as drop off right into a deep rest to allow your body to execute its job of fixing your muscle mass as well as restoring your power degrees. Unlike with some rest help, you will certainly not get up sensation tired the following early morning when you take Clear Labs Rest Help.
This item is without any kind of synthetic tastes, sugar, or chemicals. The advised dose is 3 pills taken 45 mins prior to bed on a vacant belly.
- 200 mg magnesium citrate per offering
- Consists of 7 various other tried and tested sleep-promoting active ingredients
- Scientifically dosed
- Calls for taking 3 pills each time
If you intend to optimize your cause the fitness center, you require top quality rest every evening, which is specifically what Transparent Labs Rest Help aids you accomplish …
3. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Anxiousness: Nootropics Depot ClariMAG
Nootropics Depot ClariMAG integrates 2 types of magnesium; sucrosomial magnesium as well as magnesium glycinate. Sucrosomial magnesium is a very bioavailable kind that is made by filling magnesium oxide right into specialized sucrose ester balls. This enables the magnesium to be much better taken in right into the body’s cells.
Glycinate, the various other kind of magnesium utilized below, has actually been revealed to assist combat anxiousness. It is utilized below in its chelated kind, which boosts its bioavailability.
Vitamin C has actually likewise been contributed to this formula. When metabolized, vitamin C comes to be threonic acid, which has the ability to boost mind focus of magnesium. There is likewise 25 mcg of vitamin D, which might boost magnesium absorption. Various other active ingredients in this substance are agmatine sulfate, as well as polygala tenufolia origin remove.
Each container of Nootropics Depot ClariMAG includes 60 pills. With an offering dimension of 2 pills, that offers you a one-month supply. The day-to-day price exercises to around a buck.
- 2 types of magnesium
- Vitamin C as well as Vitamin D
- Improved absorption
- Does not include magnesium citrate
ClariMAG is a very enhanced magnesium supplement that can profit practically every person. The factor for this is that many people lack magnesium. Not all magnesium supplements are produced equivalent however, as well as a great deal of them have puny bioavailability …
4. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Females: Mother’s Happiness Calmness
Mother’s Happiness Calmness is especially produced for females to lower stress and anxiety as well as anxiousness as well as cultivate a state of peace as well as leisure. Each offering includes:
- 125 mg magnesium
- 250 mg calcium
- 8 mg natural balm fallen leave
The mix of calcium as well as magnesium has actually been revealed to boost bone as well as muscular tissue stamina. They likewise advertise peace, help in reducing anxiousness as well as improve muscle leisure.
Organic balm fallen leave has actually been utilized to lower anxiousness as well as advertise leisure by calming the nerve system. Researches have actually revealed that lemon balm might have a sedative impact, aiding to lower anxiousness as well as boost rest top quality. It is likewise utilized as a therapy for sleeping disorders as well as uneasyness. Some researches recommend that it might boost cognitive feature as well as lower signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety, anxiety, as well as anxiousness. It has actually likewise been utilized to boost state of mind as well as alleviate stress frustrations.
Mother’s Happiness Calmness can be found in the kind of little, easy-to-swallow pills. It is vegan-friendly as well as includes no sugarcoated, tastes, or chemicals. There are 90 pills per container, with an offering dimension of 2 pills daily.
- Integrates calcium as well as magnesium
- Organic balm fallen leave for relaxant results
- Easy-to-swallow pills
- Magnesium dose is a little bit reduced
Particularly created mamas seeking even more tranquility throughout their hectic days. Influenced By Mamas All over: Our items are motivated by mamas as well as created females to assist loosen up, soothe the mind, as well as de-stress …
5. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Irregular Bowel Movements: Life Expansion Magnesium Caps
Life Expansion Magnesium Caps is a mix of 3 types of magnesium; citrate, oxide, as well as succinate. The mixed magnesium dose is 500 mg, which is 119% of the RDA for a man. That is the highest possible dosage of any one of our 7 leading magnesium supplements, making it perfect for individuals that have a magnesium shortage.
Life Expansion has a 40-year online reputation as a company of premier wellness supplements as well as is recognized for its complete openness. Every one of their items are carefully examined by an outdoors lab. They are likewise popular for providing their supplements at an excellent cost factor, with this item being an outstanding instance of that.
The day-to-day dose forever Expansion Magnesium Caps is one pill as well as there are 100 pills in each container.
- 3 types of magnesium
- Well valued
- third celebration examined
- Dose might be expensive for some individuals
Our magnesium supplement provides the day-to-day dosage of magnesium your body requires to sustain heart as well as bone wellness, healthy and balanced basal metabolism, mind feature as well as a lot more …
6. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Fat Burning: Thorne Magnesium CitraMate
Thorne Magnesium CitrMate integrates 2 of the best-absorbed types of magnesium:
- Magnesium citrate
- Magnesium malate
This mix offers enhanced assistance for individuals experiencing muscular tissue discomfort, whether as an outcome of an exercise or a persistent disorder. Magnesium as well as citrate likewise sustain kidney feature by aiding to reduce the degree of calcium oxalate as well as phosphate in the pee. On top of that, they will certainly stir up the Krebs cycle through which mobile power is generated. The additional power that results will certainly assist to shed calories.
Thorne Magnesium CitrMate can be found in a 90-capsule container. The day-to-day dose is one pill.
- Integrates 2 types of magnesium
- Quick absorbing
- Enhances power
- Complete magnesium dosage is a little bit reduced
Magnesium as well as malate (malic acid) offer assistance for people that have periodic excruciating muscle mass. Thorne is selected by champs as well as relied on by 100+ pro groups. Thorne is the only supplement maker to work together with Mayo Facility …
7. Finest Magnesium Supplement For Maternity: Zhou Nourishment Mag Glycinate
Zhou Nourishment Mag Glycinate offers you with 350 mg of magnesium glycinate. Glycinate is a very bioavailable kind of magnesium that might be much easier on the belly than magnesium citrate. The only various other component, in addition to the pill components, is Bioperine black pepper remove, which is contributed to more increase the absorption of the cornerstone.
Magnesium Glycinate might assist to soothe as well as loosen up the muscle mass to assist with exercise recuperation as well as muscular tissue repair work. It might likewise boost bone thickness as well as stamina along with enhancing heart wellness.
Zhou Nourishment Mag Glycinate is confined in a veggie cellulose pill making this a vegan-friendly item. It is likewise non-GMO as well as gluten-free. This supplement is produced in a GMP-authorized center as well as goes through third celebration screening for top quality.
There are 180 pills in every container of Zhou Nourishment Mag Glycinate. An offering dimension is 4 pills, so you obtain a 45-day supply with each acquisition.
- 350 mg magnesium glycinate
- Extremely bioavailable
- Consists of Bioperine for higher absorption
- third celebration examined
- Calls for taking 4 pills daily
Zhou provides among the highest possible does as well as exceptional types of magnesium offered magnesium glycinate complicated. Unlike standalone magnesium citrate, Zhou’s Mag Glycinate 350 complicated is created with glycine to be much easier on your belly …
What is magnesium?
Magnesium is a crucial mineral that is associated with over 300 chemical responses in the body. This mineral plays a vital duty in numerous features of the body consisting of, rest, immune stamina, blood glucose control, bone stamina, healthy protein manufacturing, muscular tissue as well as nerve feature; simply among others. This normally happening mineral in the body is likewise located in numerous foods such as nuts, leafed eco-friendly veggies, entire grains as well as seeds.
Advantages of magnesium supplements:
Magnesium supplements are nutritional supplements where magnesium is the essential component. They are offered in tablet computer, pill, powder, as well as fluid kind
Below’s a review of the essential advantages of this remarkable substance.
1. Power manufacturing
Among the essential methods which magnesium sustains power manufacturing is by triggering adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the key resource of power for the body’s cells. Magnesium is needed for the enzyme adenylate kinase to move a phosphate team from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to develop ATP. This procedure is called mobile respiration, as well as it is important for the body to generate power.
Magnesium likewise contributes in the metabolic rate of carbs, fats, as well as healthy proteins. It is needed for the enzymes that damage down these macronutrients, enabling them to be exchanged power. Without sufficient magnesium, the body is incapable to effectively metabolize these nutrients, bring about reduced power degrees.
Magnesium is associated with the manufacturing of natural chemicals, which are chemicals that assist to beam in the mind. These natural chemicals, such as dopamine as well as serotonin, play an important duty in managing state of mind as well as power degrees. Reduced degrees of magnesium can cause a shortage in natural chemicals, which can lead to sensations of tiredness as well as reduced power.
On top of that, magnesium aids to manage blood glucose degrees, which can affect power degrees. Magnesium contributes in insulin level of sensitivity, which aids to manage the uptake of sugar right into the cells. Without sufficient degrees of magnesium, blood glucose degrees can come to be unbalanced, bring about sensations of tiredness as well as reduced power.
Generally, magnesium is important for power manufacturing as well as metabolic rate in the body. It plays an important duty in triggering ATP, the key resource of power for the body’s cells, as well as it is needed for the enzymes that damage down macronutrients, enabling them to be exchanged power. In addition, magnesium is associated with the manufacturing of natural chemicals as well as the guideline of blood glucose degrees, which can affect power degrees. Guaranteeing sufficient magnesium consumption via diet regimen or supplements can sustain general power manufacturing as well as metabolic rate in the body. 1
2. Sustains Muscular tissue as well as nerve feature
In regards to muscular tissue feature, magnesium is very important for contraction as well as leisure. It aids to trigger muscular tissue enzymes, which are required for muscular tissue feature as well as basal metabolism. Magnesium likewise aids to manage the equilibrium of calcium in muscular tissue cells, which is essential for typical contraction as well as leisure.
Pertaining to nerve feature, magnesium contributes in keeping the typical feature of afferent neuron as well as the transmission of nerve impulses. It is likewise associated with the guideline of natural chemicals, which are chemicals that beam in between afferent neuron. Reduced degrees of magnesium have actually been connected to nerve problems such as migraine headaches, sleeping disorders, as well as anxiety.
In addition, magnesium aids to maintain the heart healthy and balanced by managing the heart rhythm as well as high blood pressure. It likewise aids to manage sugar degrees as well as insulin level of sensitivity. 2
3. Hormonal Agent Equilibrium
Magnesium contributes in sustaining hormonal agent equilibrium in a number of methods:
Magnesium aids to manage the task of enzymes that are associated with hormonal agent synthesis as well as metabolic rate. This consists of enzymes that are associated with the manufacturing of hormonal agents such as estrogen, testosterone, as well as insulin.
Magnesium has a soothing impact on the body, which can assist to manage the stress and anxiety reaction as well as lower the manufacturing of the stress and anxiety hormonal agent cortisol. High degrees of cortisol can interrupt the equilibrium of various other hormonal agents in the body, such as estrogen as well as testosterone.
Magnesium is likewise required for the correct feature of the adrenal glands, which generate a range of hormonal agents consisting of adrenaline as well as cortisol.
Magnesium contributes in insulin level of sensitivity, which is very important for keeping healthy and balanced blood glucose degrees. Insulin resistance can cause discrepancies in various other hormonal agents such as development hormonal agent, testosterone, as well as estrogen.
Magnesium likewise contributes in keeping healthy and balanced thyroid feature. The thyroid gland generates hormonal agents that manage metabolic rate, as well as magnesium is required for the manufacturing as well as metabolic rate of these hormonal agents. 3
4. Muscular Tissue Leisure
Magnesium plays a vital duty in muscular tissue leisure by managing the equilibrium of calcium in muscular tissue cells. Calcium is required for contraction, while magnesium is required for muscular tissue leisure.
When a muscle mass agreements, calcium ions move right into the muscular tissue cell, which causes the muscular tissue to agreement. To loosen up the muscular tissue, the calcium ions require to be gotten rid of from the muscular tissue cell. Magnesium works as an all-natural calcium villain, indicating it aids to eliminate calcium ions from the muscular tissue cell, enabling the muscular tissue to loosen up.
In addition, magnesium aids to trigger enzymes that are associated with muscular tissue leisure, such as the enzyme in charge of damaging down the healthy protein that creates contraction.
Magnesium is likewise associated with the manufacturing of power (ATP) in muscular tissue cells, as well as when magnesium degrees are reduced, muscle mass might come to be tired as well as constrain quickly. This can influence muscular tissue leisure. 4
5. Enhances rest top quality
Magnesium contributes in enhancing rest top quality in a number of methods:
- Magnesium aids to manage the task of enzymes associated with the manufacturing of the natural chemical GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which has a soothing impact on the mind as well as nerve system. GABA aids to lower the task of the mind as well as advertises leisure, which can cause much better rest.
- Magnesium can likewise assist to lower stress and anxiety as well as anxiousness, which can be a significant root cause of rest troubles. When the body is under stress and anxiety, it generates the hormonal agent cortisol, which can disrupt the body’s capability to loosen up as well as go to sleep. Magnesium can assist to lower the manufacturing of cortisol as well as advertise a feeling of tranquility as well as leisure.
- Magnesium has actually been revealed to assist manage melatonin, a hormonal agent that manages the body’s sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin manufacturing boosts at night, making us really feel drowsy as well as all set for bed, reduced degrees of magnesium can influence the all-natural manufacturing of melatonin as well as interrupt rest patterns.
- Magnesium can assist to stop muscular tissue pains as well as convulsions, which can be an usual root cause of rest disruption. 5
6. Digestive System Assistance
- Magnesium aids to manage the task of enzymes associated with the food digestion of food, such as those that damage down carbs, fats, as well as healthy proteins.
- Magnesium is important for the correct feature of the muscle mass of the digestion system, consisting of the esophagus, belly, little intestinal tract, as well as colon. It aids to manage contraction as well as motions that are required for the typical motion of food via the gastrointestinal system.
- Magnesium is likewise required for the correct feature of the nerves that manage the muscle mass of the digestion system. Reduced degrees of magnesium can cause muscular tissue convulsions as well as pains in the gastrointestinal system, which can trigger discomfort, bloating, as well as irregularity.
- Magnesium aids to manage the manufacturing of belly acid, which is required for the correct food digestion of food. Reduced degrees of magnesium can cause reduced belly acid manufacturing, which can trigger acid indigestion as well as malabsorption of nutrients.
- Magnesium is likewise associated with keeping a healthy and balanced intestine microbiome, it aids to manage the equilibrium of helpful microorganisms in the intestine, which can be helpful for general food digestion as well as general wellness. 6
Negative effects of magnesium supplements
Magnesium supplements are normally risk-free as well as well-tolerated, however they can trigger adverse effects in some individuals. One of the most typical adverse effects of magnesium supplements consist of:
- Looseness Of The Bowels: Magnesium can have a laxative impact as well as can trigger loosened feceses or looseness of the bowels in some individuals, specifically when absorbed huge dosages.
- Nausea Or Vomiting: Some individuals might experience queasiness when taking magnesium supplements, specifically if tackled a vacant belly.
- Belly pains: Taking magnesium supplements can trigger belly pains or pain, specifically if absorbed huge dosages.
- I nteraction with various other drugs: Magnesium supplements might communicate with some drugs, such as anti-biotics, high blood pressure drugs, as well as diuretics. It is necessary to speak to your medical professional or pharmacologist prior to taking magnesium supplements if you are taking any kind of various other drugs.
- Disturbance with the absorption of particular minerals: High dosages of magnesium supplements can disrupt the absorption of zinc, iron, as well as calcium.
What to try to find when acquiring magnesium supplements:
Looking for a magnesium supplement can be a complicated experience. In addition to all the various brand names, there are various kinds of magnesium as well as various types of the supplement. Below’s an overview to making the most effective option.
Magnesium Citrate: A kind of magnesium that is bound to citric acid as well as is well-absorbed by the body.
Magnesium Oxide: A typical kind of supplement that is low-cost however not well-absorbed by the body.
Magnesium Chloride: A kind of magnesium that is bound to chloride as well as is well-absorbed by the body.
Magnesium Glycinate: A kind of magnesium that is bound to the amino acid glycine as well as is well-absorbed by the body.
Magnesium L-threonate: A kind of magnesium that is bound to L-threonic acid as well as is thought to be able to permeate the brain-blood obstacle.
Magnesium Malate: A mix of magnesium with malic acid that aids control blood glucose, boost exercise efficiency as well as increase state of mind.
Magnesium Carbonate: A white, anemic not natural salt that is utilized as a laxative.
Magnesium Sulfate: A kind of magnesium that is bound to sulfur as well as is occasionally utilized for outside usage as bathroom saturate or for irregularity alleviation.
Magnesium Aspartate: A kind of magnesium produced from the chelated magnesium salt of aspartic acid. This kind has greater bioavailability than a lot of.
An option of magnesium as well as hydroxide that has actually been revealed to lower belly acid.
Magnesium supplements are offered in pill, tablet computer, powder, gummy, as well as fluid kind. The option of kind is greatly an issue of individual choice, though there is some proof that the fluid kind has higher bioavailability. Taking the supplement in powder kind enables you to include it to your pre-workout or various other drink.
A supplement is just mosting likely to be just as good as its dose. The RDA for magnesium varies by age as well as sex. A typical day-to-day supplements of about 200 mg is normally advised. You ought to take greater than 400 mg daily.
Search for a supplement that has actually undertaken third celebration screening for pureness as well as strength. This will certainly offer you with self-confidence that the supplement includes precisely what is published on the tag as well as absolutely nothing else.
Magnesium supplement rates vary fairly substantially. Commonly less expensive supplements include the least reliable types that are the least pricey to generate. Our 7 ideal magnesium supplements vary in cost from around twenty cents to over a buck per day-to-day offering.
By inspecting on-line evaluations you will certainly have the ability to obtain understanding right into the efficiency of a magnesium supplement in regards to its capability to generate the outcomes asserted. You’ll likewise have the ability to see whether the supplement creates any kind of unfavorable responses as well as if there are any kind of troubles with the kind of the supplement.
Magnesium Supplement FAQs
What are magnesium supplements great for?
Magnesium is associated with greater than 300 chemical responses, so supplementing with it has lots of advantages. these consist of improving power degrees, sustaining muscular tissue as well as nerve feature, stabilizing hormonal agent degrees, as well as enhancing rest.
Is it ok to take magnesium supplements everyday?
Yes, it is alright to a magnesium supplement everyday. Nonetheless, you ought to not surpass 400 mg daily.
What is the most effective kind of magnesium to take?
There are various types of magnesium supplements to select from. the most effective kind for you will certainly depend upon your specific demands. In regards to bioavailability, your ideal choices are magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate, as well as magnesium l-threonate.
Should I take magnesium early morning or evening?
The timing of your magnesium supplements depends upon the kind you are taking. Magnesium citrate, magnesium oxide, as well as magnesium glycinate are generally advised to be taken with dishes or in separated dosages throughout the day considering that they can have a laxative impact if tackled a vacant belly.
Magnesium L-threonate as well as various other types that have a soothing impact on the body, it can be taken during the night prior to bed to assist boost rest.
That should not take magnesium supplements?
Magnesium supplements ought to not be taken by individuals with a kidney illness, heart troubles, those on high blood pressure medicine, as well as individuals that experience a digestive tract blockage. Individuals with an allergy to magnesium as well as expectant as well as nursing females ought to likewise not take a magnesium supplement.
Magnesium is a crucial mineral that, as we have actually seen, is crucial to lots of body procedures. It is likewise a mineral that fifty percent of the populace lacks. In this post, we have actually determined the 7 ideal magnesium supplements on today’s market as well as discovered a great deal concerning why you ought to be entering the day-to-day magnesium supplementing routine.
The general ideal magnesium supplement on the marketplace is Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate, which offers you with 150 mg of magnesium citrate in a vegan-friendly kind.
Much More Finest Supplement Resources:
- National Institutes of Health And Wellness. “Workplace of Dietary Supplements – Magnesium.” Nih.gov, 2016, ods.od.nih.gov/ factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/.
- Wang R, Chen C, Liu W, Zhou T, Xun P, He K, Chen P. The impact of magnesium supplements on muscular tissue physical fitness: a meta-analysis as well as methodical testimonial. Magnes Res. 2017 Nov 1; 30( 4 ):120 -132. doi: 10.1684/ mrh.2018.0430. PMID: 29637897.
- Shrimanker I, Bhattarai S. Electrolytes. 2022 Jul 25. In: StatPearls[Internet] Prize Island (FL): StatPearls Posting; 2022 Jan–. PMID: 31082167.
- Wang H, Liang QS, Cheng LR, Li XH, Fu W, Dai WT, Li ST. Magnesium sulfate improves non-depolarizing muscular tissue depressant vecuronium activity at grown-up muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor artificial insemination. Acta Pharmacol Wrong. 2011 Dec; 32( 12 ):1454 -9. doi: 10.1038/ aps.2011.117. Epub 2011 Oct 10. PMID: 21986576; PMCID: PMC4010211.
- Arab A, Rafie N, Amani R, Shirani F. The Duty of Magnesium in Rest Health And Wellness: a Methodical Evaluation of Readily Available Literary Works. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2023 Jan; 201( 1 ):121 -128. doi: 10.1007/ s12011-022-03162-1. Epub 2022 Feb 19. PMID: 35184264.
- Romero-Güiza MS, Mata-Alvarez J, Chimenos JM, Astals S. The impact of magnesium as activator as well as prevention of anaerobic food digestion. Waste Manag. 2016 Oct; 56:137 -42. doi: 10.1016/ j.wasman.2016.06.037. Epub 2016 Jul 9. PMID: 27402564.